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Anti-Semitism is a form of racism that denigrates a group of people. Anti-Semitism has three main variations: (1) anti-Judaism is a religiously-based hostility to Jews, particularly by Christianity. Its roots lie in pre-Christian antiquity. (2) Modern anti-Semitism is based on racial theories that are often politically and economically motivated. (3) Anti-Zionism is a phenomenon of both the extreme right and extreme left and demonizes the state of Israel as a Jewish national movement for a homeland.