Glossary beginning with L
- Landsberg/Lechsearch for term
One of the subsidiary camps of the Kaufering subcamp complex attached to the Dachau concentration camp, where nearly 30,000 prisoners (mostly Jews) worked as forced laborers to build underground airplane factories. American troops liberated Landsberg on April 27, 1945. After the war, Landsberg became a displaced persons camp for about 6,000 people, 5,000 of whom were Jews. Landsberg was the prison where Hitler wrote "Mein Kampf" during his imprisonment from 1923-1924. After December 1946, the prison held 1,600 Nazi war criminals awaiting trial and sentencing in the American zone of occupation.
- Law Reestablishing the Civil Servicesearch for term
The Law for the Reestablishment of the Civil Service was passed on April 7, 1933, and resulted by the summer of 1933 in the compulsory firing of all non-Aryans and political objectors in the civil service, including university professors, judges, and physicians in non-private Krankenkassen (physicians employed by state insurance system).Synonyms: Berufsbeamtengesetz, Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums
- Lidicesearch for term
Village in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, liquidated in retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, protector of Bohemia and Moravia, by Czech resistance on May 27, 1942 in Prague. Male inhabitants of Lidice that were over 16 years of age were killed on June 6, 1942. The village's women and children were deported to concentration camps, some of them later given to German families and germanized. Some of the children were gassed at Chelmno.
- List of ethnic Germanssearch for term
The "Deutsche Volksliste" (full title) was introduced in 1941 following decrees by the Minister of the Interior of the Reich, Wilhelm Frick, and Heinrich Himmler in his function as Kommissar für die Festigung des deutschen Volkstums [Commissioner for the strengthening of Germanhood]. It divided the population of the occupied territories into four categories. Category I: Persons of German descent who had engaged themselves in favour of the Reich before 1939. Category II: Persons of German descent who had remained passive. Category III: Persons of German descent who had become partly "polonized", e.g. through marrying a Polish partner or through working relationships (especially Silesians and Kashubians). Category IV: Persons of German ancestry who had become "polonized" and were supportive of »Germanisation«. Persons who had been assigned to one of these categories but were denying their ties to Germany were dealt with very harshly. Persons of categories III and IV were sent to Germany as labourers and recruited for the German army.Synonyms: Deutsche Volksliste, Volksliste
- Little Fortress Theresienstadtsearch for term
The Little Fortress was a police prison created by the Prague Gestapo in June 1940, located across the Ohre River from the Theresienstadt ghetto. More than 32,000 political prisoners were held there between 1940 and 1945. Jews held in the Theresienstadt ghetto were at times also transferred to the Little Fortress for infractions of ghetto rules.Synonyms: Terezin
- Litzmannstadtsearch for term
Also known as "Lodz." City in incorporated western Poland where the first major ghetto was created in April 1940. By September 1941, the ghetto's population faced severe overcrowding. In October 1941, 20,000 Jews from Germany, Austria, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were deported to the Lodz ghetto. A separate section of the ghetto was set up for approximately 5,000 Austrian Roma and Sinti. During 1942 and June-July 1944, there were massive deportations from Lodz to the killing center in Chelmno. In August-September 1944, the ghetto was dissolved and the remaining 60,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz.Synonyms: Lodz
- Lodzsearch for term
City in incorporated western Poland, renamed Litzmannstadt, where the first major ghetto was created in April 1940. By September 1941, the ghetto's population faced severe overcrowding. In October 1941, 20,000 Jews from Germany, Austria, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were deported to the Lodz ghetto. A separate section of the ghetto was set up for approximately 5,000 Austrian Roma and Sinti. During 1942 and June-July 1944, there were massive deportations from Lodz to the killing center in Chelmno. In August-September 1944, the ghetto was dissolved and the remaining 60,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz.Synonyms: Ghetto Litzmannstadt, Ghetto Lodz, Litzmannstadt
- Lublinsearch for term
- Ludmila Peškařová, neé Kadlecovasearch for term
1890-1987. Born in Sobotovice near Brünn. Study of music, worked as a music teacher since 1910. Moved to Rajhrad in 1912, marriage to Jan Peškař, teacher. After the setting up of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939, her husband joined the Czech resistance movement. Husband arrested in Brünn 1942 and murdered following the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich. Ludmilla Peškařová arrested in May 1943 for high treason because she had put two small black banners into her window in commemoration of her husband. Her 14-year-old son was left alone. After a five-month imprisonment at Brünn, where she started to write songs, she was transferred to Ravensbrück in October 1943 (prisoner number 24 072). Together with her camp mates, she secretly sang patriotic songs and composed more than 100 poems and songs until her liberation. She wrote down part of her work in summer 1945, after her return home. After her liberation and return home she became active in the association of resistance fighters. She died in 1987 at the age of 97.