Glossary beginning with H

Hachscharasearch for term

Hebrew term for agricultural and manual labor training facilities in Germany from 1933-1939, where Jewish youth prepared for emigration to Palestine.

Hadamarsearch for term

A psychiatric hospital and sanatorium founded in 1906 that served Operation T4 as an "euthanasia" center after 1941. More than 11,000 people were killed here, including Jewish children of mixed marriages that had been placed in foster homes. The American postwar Hadamar trial in October 1945 was one of the first trials held in the American occupation zone. The prosecution team, headed by U.S. Army Colonel Leon Jaworski, tried and convicted seven defendants for killing 476 Allied nationals (Polish and Russian forced laborers) diagnosed with tuberculosis.

Hanns Eisler search for term

1898 - 1962. German composer who worked with Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill, taught at University of California in Los Angeles from 1938-48, then returned to East Berlin.

Heinrich Himmlersearch for term

Early Nazi activist, participated in 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, acting propaganda leader of the Nazi party during 1920s, joined SS, 1926, appointed Reich Leader SS (RFSS), 1929, member of the Reichstag, 1930, chief of the Munich police and the Bavarian political police, 1933, consolidated police forces of all Länder under his command, 1933-1934, Reich Leader SS and Chief of the German Police in the Reich Ministry of the Interior, 1936, Reich Commissar for the Strengthening of German Ethnicity, 1939, Reich Minister of the Interior, 1943, committed suicide after arrest by British troops, May 1945.

Hermann Göring search for term

1893-1946. Early associate of Adolf Hitler, responsible for the Nazi rearmament program, and supreme commander of the German air force. As plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan, Göring was virtual dictator of the German economy. He was also responsible for the "Aryanization" of Jewish property. In July 1941, he authorized Reinhard Heydrich to organize a "final solution" of the Jewish question. As one of the chief defendants at the International Military Tribunal, Göring was found guilty and sentenced to death, he committed suicide hours before his scheduled hanging.

Himmlerlandsearch for term

The term "Himmlerland" found its way into Polish. It was the title of episode no. 10 of the TV series "Polskie Drogi", produced in the 1970ies/1980ies. This episode deals with the expulsion and resettlement operations described here, Polish resistance against it and in particular with the fate of the Jewish foster daughter of one of the two Polish heroes of the series. The girl, having been brought to a catholic sisters' convent in the remote Zamo&#347,&#263, Region for safety reasons, is abducted and taken to Germany for adoption together with other girls from the hostel. Zamo&#347,&#263, was renamed "Himmlerstadt" in 1942/43, then called "Pflugstadt" until July 1944.

Hitler Youth search for term

The male branch of the Nazi German youth movement. Every male reaching the age of 10 had to register by March 15 of every year with the Reich Youth Headquarters. After investigation for "racial purity," the boy was initiated into the Jungvolk, the division for boys ages 10 to 14. Male children aged 14 to 18 became members of the Hitler Youth. At the age of 18, young men graduated from the Hitler Youth to the Nazi party and served six months in the State Labor Service. They were later drafted into the military.

Synonyms: Hitler Jugend, HJ
Hitler-Stalin Pactsearch for term

(Non-aggression treaty) Together with the German-Soviet Boundaries and Friendship Treaty it sanctioned the division of East and Central Europe into a German and a Soviet domain of interest, was signed by the foreign ministers v. Ribbentrop and Molotov, was valid for a period of ten years and included a reciprocal obligation of non-aggression and of neutrality in the case of a conflict between either of the contracting parties and a third state, following Stalin's wish, a secret protocol was added which gave the Soviet Union a free hand in Bessarabia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Poland east of the rivers Narev, Weichsel and San while leaving Lithuania and the rest of Poland to the Third Reich. As agreed in the Hitler-Stalin Pact, the Red Army marched into Poland on 17 September 1939.

Homosexualssearch for term

Persecuted in Nazi Germany, homosexuals were affected by police raids and arrests after 1933. More systematic persecution occurred after 1935 under paragraph 175 of the German penal code. Arrest statistics for homosexuals jailed in Nazi Germany range from a low of 5,000 to a high of 40,000. Many German homosexuals were sent to concentration camps and forced labor camps, where they were vulnerable to brutal medical experiments, castration, and sterilization, in the camps they were marked by a pink triangle. Although their mortality rate is not fully known, it is believed that several hundred probably perished in the camps. The Nazis did not try to kill all homosexuals but tried to "convert them for procreation." There is no evidence of any arrests of lesbians in Nazi Germany.