Glossary beginning with F

Final Solution search for term

Literally translated as "final solution of the Jewish problem in Europe," this was the Nazi code name for the mass murder of European Jews.

Synonyms: Endlösung, Endlösung der Judenfrage
Flossenbürgsearch for term

Nazi concentration camp for men, opened in May 1938, located in northeastern Bavaria. After 1943, women prisoners were also incarcerated at Flossenbürg, which eventually had more than 100 auxiliary labor camps. A total of 96,716 prisoners was registered, 30,000 of these prisoners were killed there. In the last year, 1,500 political prisoners, including Dietrich Bonhoeffer and members of the 1944 plot against Hitler, were executed there. The camp was liberated by U.S. 90th Infantry Divisions on April 23, 1945.

Forced labor search for term

Prisoners from concentration camps and workers conscripted in occupied Poland and the Soviet Union were compelled to work, on starvation rations, in agriculture, highway building and factories for the German state during World War II. Labor was also viewed as a form of killing by attrition. Forced labor was introduced for Sinti and Roma inside Nazi Germany in 1936, and after 1938 it was extended to German Jews and other concentration camp prisoners. Information from the Nuremberg trials estimated that there were 12 million forced laborers.

Synonyms: Forced Labour, Zwangsarbeit
Four Year Plansearch for term

Devised by Adolf Hitler in 1936 for the rearmament of Germany as well as the restructuring of the German economy for war within a period of four years. The goals of the plan were in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Hermann Göring was named commissioner for the implementation of this plan.

Synonyms: Vierjahresplan
Freemasonssearch for term

The Masonic movement, founded in eighteenth-century England, consisted of 690 fraternal lodges and about 70,000 Masons in Germany. In Nazi Germany, the anti-Masonic movement was linked to anti-Semitic propaganda. Masons could not be accepted into the Nazi party, and lodges were disbanded in September 1935 and their property confiscated. All lodge archives were confiscated and kept in the Central Office for Reich Security (RSHA) in Berlin. In August 1940, Masonic lodges in occupied Belgium and France were closed and their archives and property confiscated and sent to Berlin.

Fritz Cremer search for term

1906-1993. Sculptor and graphic artist, born in Arnsberg, Westphalia. He studied sculpture in Essen and Berlin from 1922-34 and became a communist in 1929. From 1946-50, Cremer was a professor at the Kunsthochschule [Vienna Art School]. In 1950, he emigrated to the German Democratic Republic, where he was one of the most recognized and important masters of realistic sculpture. Cremer's style shows the influence of Ernst Barlach and Käthe Kollwitz. His main works include memorials at Auschwitz (1947), Buchenwald (1952-58), and Ravensbrück (1959-60).

Fumikatsu Inoue search for term

Born in 1944. Japanese architect, designer of the Holocaust Memorial, "The Bud" [Erdknospe]. Co-organizer of World Reunion of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, executive board member of the Japanese Janusz Korczak Society and the International Institute for Research about the Holocaust and Genocide (Jerusalem), member of the planning committee for the Japan Auschwitz Memorial in Tokyo.